Learn to recognise and use masculine nouns in nominative and accusative case.
Masculine nouns typically end in consonant or have a NIL ending in nominative case e.g. stol (chair), uspeh (success), užitek (pleasure), virus (virus), zajtrk (breakfast), sladkor (sugar), sladoled (ice cream), planet (planet).
In rare cases, they can end in -o or -e (avto, finale).
All nouns where the natural gender of the subject is obvious e.g. father, brother, uncle etc. are masculine.
The accusative case is used when an object or a person (a noun) is directly receiving the action or is the object of an action.
For example "Jaz vidim avto" (I see a car) - the object "car" is receiving the action of "seeing".
We can help determine the case by using the following questions:
|Nominative||Who or what (is here)?||Mama je tu. (Mother is here)|
|Genitive||Who or what (is not here)?||Mame ni tu. (Mother is not here)|
|Dative||To whom or to what (do we give)?||Mami dam darilo. (I give gift to mother.)|
|Accusative||Whom or what (do we see)?||Jaz vidim mamo. (I see mother)|
|Locative||Next to whom or what (is)?||Pri mami je otrok. (The child is with the mother.)|
|Instrumental||With whom or with what (is)?||Z mamo je oče.|
Further examples of when accusative is used:
|Whom or what do I see?||Vidim očeta.||I see father.|
|What do I eat?||Jem zajtrk.||I'm eating breakfast.|
|What do I read?||Berem časopis.||I'm reading a newspaper.|
|What do I have?||Imam brata.||I have a brother.|
Most masculine nouns are declensed by using 1st masculine noun declension paradigm. A specific rule for masculine nouns which use 1st paradigm is also that there are different endings for persons and animals versus inanimate objects.
Here are some examples:
Persons and animals
Correct answer is Stric pride na obisk.
Correct answer is Naredim majhen korak.
Correct answer is I see my friend.
Correct answer is brother
I bought a new device.
Kupil sem nov .
Correct answer is Kupil sem nov aparat.
Correct answer is Vidim očeta.
Correct answer is This is his dad
This is a coffee machine.
To je za kavo.
Correct answer is To je aparat za kavo.
Correct answer is hotel
Correct answer is nasprotnik
Correct answer is Imam dobrega prijatelja.
Correct answer is Imam enega brata.
Correct answer is Vidim strica.
Correct answer is To je moj brat.
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