Learn to recognise and use masculine nouns in nominative and accusative case.
Masculine nouns typically end in consonant or have a NIL ending in nominative case e.g. stol (chair), uspeh (success), užitek (pleasure), virus (virus), zajtrk (breakfast), sladkor (sugar), sladoled (ice cream), planet (planet).
In rare cases, they can end in -o or -e (avto, finale).
All nouns where the natural gender of the subject is obvious e.g. father, brother, uncle etc. are masculine.
The accusative case is used when an object or a person (a noun) is directly receiving the action or is the object of an action.
For example "Jaz vidim avto" (I see a car) - the object "car" is receiving the action of "seeing".
We can help determine the case by using the following questions:
|Nominative||Who or what (is here)?||Mama je tu. (Mother is here)|
|Genitive||Who or what (is not here)?||Mame ni tu. (Mother is not here)|
|Dative||To whom or to what (do we give)?||Mami dam darilo. (I give gift to mother.)|
|Accusative||Whom or what (do we see)?||Jaz vidim mamo. (I see mother)|
|Locative||Next to whom or what (is)?||Pri mami je otrok. (The child is with the mother.)|
|Instrumental||With whom or with what (is)?||Z mamo je oče.|
Further examples of when accusative is used:
|Whom or what do I see?||Vidim očeta.||I see father.|
|What do I eat?||Jem zajtrk.||I'm eating breakfast.|
|What do I read?||Berem časopis.||I'm reading a newspaper.|
|What do I have?||Imam brata.||I have a brother.|
Most masculine nouns are declensed by using 1st masculine noun declension paradigm. A specific rule for masculine nouns which use 1st paradigm is also that there are different endings for persons and animals versus inanimate objects.
Here are some examples:
Persons and animals
Correct answer is This is a well-known hotel.
Correct answer is Call the gentleman.
Correct answer is gospod
Correct answer is brat
I make a small step.
Naredim majhen .
Correct answer is Naredim majhen korak.
My belly hurts.
Correct answer is Trebuh me boli.
Marko is my friend.
Marko je moj .
Correct answer is Marko je moj prijatelj.
Correct answer is Gospod je zelo star.
Correct answer is To je moj brat.
Correct answer is stric
My belly is flat.
Moj je raven.
Correct answer is Moj trebuh je raven.
Correct answer is hotel
Correct answer is chair
Correct answer is aparat
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