Learn to recognise and use masculine nouns in nominative and accusative case.
Masculine nouns typically end in consonant or have a NIL ending in nominative case e.g. stol (chair), uspeh (success), užitek (pleasure), virus (virus), zajtrk (breakfast), sladkor (sugar), sladoled (ice cream), planet (planet).
In rare cases, they can end in -o or -e (avto, finale).
All nouns where the natural gender of the subject is obvious e.g. father, brother, uncle etc. are masculine.
The accusative case is used when an object or a person (a noun) is directly receiving the action or is the object of an action.
For example "Jaz vidim avto" (I see a car) - the object "car" is receiving the action of "seeing".
We can help determine the case by using the following questions:
|Nominative||Who or what (is here)?||Mama je tu. (Mother is here)|
|Genitive||Who or what (is not here)?||Mame ni tu. (Mother is not here)|
|Dative||To whom or to what (do we give)?||Mami dam darilo. (I give gift to mother.)|
|Accusative||Whom or what (do we see)?||Jaz vidim mamo. (I see mother)|
|Locative||Next to whom or what (is)?||Pri mami je otrok. (The child is with the mother.)|
|Instrumental||With whom or with what (is)?||Z mamo je oče.|
Further examples of when accusative is used:
|Whom or what do I see?||Vidim očeta.||I see father.|
|What do I eat?||Jem zajtrk.||I'm eating breakfast.|
|What do I read?||Berem časopis.||I'm reading a newspaper.|
|What do I have?||Imam brata.||I have a brother.|
Most masculine nouns are declensed by using 1st masculine noun declension paradigm. A specific rule for masculine nouns which use 1st paradigm is also that there are different endings for persons and animals versus inanimate objects.
Here are some examples:
Persons and animals
Correct answer is I see a chair
Correct answer is uncle
Correct answer is Imam dobrega očeta.
Correct answer is device
Correct answer is My belly hurts.
Correct answer is korak
Correct answer is I see uncle.
Correct answer is I have a good friend.
Correct answer is Vidim očeta.
My belly is flat.
Moj je raven.
Correct answer is Moj trebuh je raven.
Correct answer is friend
This is a chair.
To je .
Correct answer is To je stol.
Correct answer is Naredim majhen korak.
Correct answer is father
Correct answer is I'll beat the opponent.
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