Learn to recognise and use masculine nouns in nominative and accusative case.
Masculine nouns typically end in consonant or have a NIL ending in nominative case e.g. stol (chair), uspeh (success), užitek (pleasure), virus (virus), zajtrk (breakfast), sladkor (sugar), sladoled (ice cream), planet (planet).
In rare cases, they can end in -o or -e (avto, finale).
All nouns where the natural gender of the subject is obvious e.g. father, brother, uncle etc. are masculine.
The accusative case is used when an object or a person (a noun) is directly receiving the action or is the object of an action.
For example "Jaz vidim avto" (I see a car) - the object "car" is receiving the action of "seeing".
We can help determine the case by using the following questions:
|Nominative||Who or what (is here)?||Mama je tu. (Mother is here)|
|Genitive||Who or what (is not here)?||Mame ni tu. (Mother is not here)|
|Dative||To whom or to what (do we give)?||Mami dam darilo. (I give gift to mother.)|
|Accusative||Whom or what (do we see)?||Jaz vidim mamo. (I see mother)|
|Locative||Next to whom or what (is)?||Pri mami je otrok. (The child is with the mother.)|
|Instrumental||With whom or with what (is)?||Z mamo je oče.|
Further examples of when accusative is used:
|Whom or what do I see?||Vidim očeta.||I see father.|
|What do I eat?||Jem zajtrk.||I'm eating breakfast.|
|What do I read?||Berem časopis.||I'm reading a newspaper.|
|What do I have?||Imam brata.||I have a brother.|
Most masculine nouns are declensed by using 1st masculine noun declension paradigm. A specific rule for masculine nouns which use 1st paradigm is also that there are different endings for persons and animals versus inanimate objects.
Here are some examples:
Persons and animals
Correct answer is nasprotnik
Correct answer is belly
Correct answer is uncle
Correct answer is Is this your father?
Alternative translations can be:
Correct answer is device
Correct answer is I see uncle.
This is a chair.
To je .
Correct answer is To je stol.
Correct answer is Oče ugasne televizijo.
Correct answer is father
Correct answer is korak
Correct answer is Rad imam svojega strica.
Correct answer is brother
The friend is learning
Correct answer is Prijatelj se uči
Correct answer is To je njegov oče.
Correct answer is My belly hurts.
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